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Trans fator trans-unsaturated fatty Thrombophlebitis Geschichtetrans fatty acidsare a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature, [1] but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats for use in margarinesnack food, packaged visit web page goods, and frying fast food starting in the s. Fats contain long hydrocarbon chains, which can either be unsaturated, i. In nature, unsaturated fatty acids generally have cis as opposed to trans configurations.

Partial hydrogenation of Thrombophlebitis Geschichte unsaturated fat converts some of the cis double bonds into trans double bonds by an isomerization reaction with the catalyst used for the hydrogenation, which yields a trans fat. Although trans fats are edible, Thrombophlebitis Geschichte of trans fats has been shown to increase the risk of coronary artery disease in part by raising levels Thrombophlebitis Geschichte the Thrombophlebitis Geschichte LDL often referred Thrombophlebitis Geschichte as "bad cholesterol"lowering levels of the lipoprotein Thrombophlebitis Geschichte often referred to as "good cholesterol"increasing triglycerides in the bloodstream and promoting systemic inflammation.

Vaccenyl and conjugated linoleyl CLA containing trans fats occur naturally in trace amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants. Most artificial trans fats are see more different from natural trans fats. Two Canadian studies have shown Thrombophlebitis Geschichte the natural trans fat vaccenic acidfound in beef and dairy continue reading, could actually Thrombophlebitis Geschichte beneficial compared to hydrogenated vegetable shortening, or a mixture of pork lard and soy fat, by lowering total and LDL and triglyceride levels.

In other countries, there are legal limits to trans fat content. Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fats levels can be reduced or eliminated using saturated fats such as lardpalm oil or fully hydrogenated fats, or by using interesterified fat. Other alternative formulations can also allow unsaturated fats to be used to replace saturated or partially hydrogenated fats.

Hydrogenated oil is not a synonym for trans fat: Nobel laureate Paul Sabatier worked in the late s to develop the chemistry of hydrogenation, which enabled the margarineoil hydrogenation, and synthetic methanol industries. It took only two years until the hardened fat could be Thrombophlebitis Geschichte produced in the plant in Warrington, commencing production in the autumn of Further success came from the marketing technique of giving away free cookbooks in which every recipe called for Crisco.

Prior to[ where? In the early 20th century, soybeans began to be imported into the United States as a source of protein; soybean oil was a by-product. What to do with that oil became an issue. At the same time, there was not enough butterfat available for consumers. The method of hydrogenating fat and turning a liquid fat into a solid one had been discovered, and now Thrombophlebitis Geschichte ingredients soybeans and the "need" shortage of butter were there.

Later, the means for storage, the refrigerator, was a factor in trans fat development. The fat industry found that hydrogenated fats provided some special features to margarines, which allowed margarine, unlike butter, отношении die besten Vitamine für Krampfadern оставить be taken out of the refrigerator and immediately spread on bread.

By some minor changes to the chemical composition of hydrogenated fat, such hydrogenated fat was found to provide superior baking properties compared to lard. Margarine made from hydrogenated soybean oil began to replace butterfat. Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fat Thrombophlebitis Geschichte as Crisco and SpryThrombophlebitis Geschichte in England, began Thrombophlebitis Geschichte replace butter and lard Thrombophlebitis Geschichte the baking of bread, pies, cookies, and cakes in Production of hydrogenated fats increased steadily until the s, as processed vegetable fats replaced animal fats in the United States and other Western countries.

At first, the argument was a financial one due to lower Thrombophlebitis Geschichte advocates also said that the unsaturated trans fats of margarine were healthier than the saturated fats of butter.

As early as there were suggestions in the scientific literature that trans fats could be a cause of the Thrombophlebitis Geschichte increase in coronary artery disease but after three decades the concerns were still largely unaddressed.

The result was an almost overnight switch by most fast-food outlets to switch to trans fats. Studies in the early s, however, brought renewed scrutiny and confirmation of the negative health impact of trans fats.

Init was estimated that trans fats caused 20, deaths annually in the United States Thrombophlebitis Geschichte heart disease. Mandatory food labeling for trans fats was introduced in several countries. A University of Guelph research group has found a way to mix oils such as olive, soybean, and canolawater, monoglyceridesand fatty acids to form a "cooking fat" that acts the same way as trans and saturated fats.

In chemical terms, trans fat is a fat lipid molecule that contains one or more double bonds in trans geometric configuration. A double bond may exhibit one of two possible configurations: In trans Thrombophlebitis Geschichte, the carbon chain extends from opposite sides of the double bond, whereas, in cis configuration, the carbon chain extends from the same side Thrombophlebitis Geschichte the double bond.

The trans molecule is a straighter molecule. The cis molecule is bent. A fatty acid Thrombophlebitis Geschichte characterized as either saturated or unsaturated based on the presence of double bonds in its structure.

If the molecule contains no double bonds, it is said to be saturated; otherwise, it is unsaturated to some degree. Only unsaturated fats can be trans or cis fat, since only a double bond can be locked to these orientations. Saturated fatty acids are never called trans fats because they have no double bonds. Therefore, all their bonds are freely rotatable. Other types Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fatty acids, such as crepenynic acidwhich contains a triple bondare rare and of no nutritional significance.

Carbon atoms are tetravalentforming Thrombophlebitis Geschichte covalent bonds with other atoms, whereas hydrogen atoms bond Thrombophlebitis Geschichte only one other Thrombophlebitis Geschichte. In saturated fatty acids, each carbon atom Thrombophlebitis Geschichte the last is connected to its two Thrombophlebitis Geschichte carbon atoms as well as two hydrogen atoms. In unsaturated fatty acids, the carbon atoms that are missing a Thrombophlebitis Geschichte atom are joined by double bonds Thrombophlebitis Geschichte than Thrombophlebitis Geschichte bonds Thrombophlebitis Geschichte that each carbon atom participates in four bonds.

Hydrogenation of an unsaturated fatty acid refers to the addition of hydrogen atoms to the acid, causing double bonds to become single ones, as carbon atoms acquire new hydrogen partners to maintain four bonds per carbon atom. Full hydrogenation results in a molecule containing the maximum Thrombophlebitis Geschichte of hydrogen in other Thrombophlebitis Geschichte, the Thrombophlebitis Geschichte of an unsaturated fatty acid into a saturated one.

Partial hydrogenation results in the addition of hydrogen atoms at some of the empty positions, with a corresponding reduction in the number of double bonds. Typical commercial hydrogenation is partial in order to obtain a malleable mixture of fats that is solid at room temperaturebut melts upon baking or consumption. However, partial hydrogenation reconfigures most of the double bonds that do not become chemically saturated, twisting them so that the Thrombophlebitis Geschichte atoms end up on different sides of the chain.

This type of configuration is called transfrom the Latin, meaning "across". The same molecule, containing the same number of atoms, with a Thrombophlebitis Geschichte bond in the same location, can be either a trans or a cis fatty acid depending on the configuration of the double bond.

For example, oleic acid and elaidic acid are both unsaturated fatty acids with the chemical formula C 9 H 17 C 9 H 17 O 2.

It is the configuration of this bond that sets them apart. The configuration has implications for the physical-chemical properties of the molecule. The trans configuration is straighter, while the cis configuration is noticeably kinked as Thrombophlebitis Geschichte be seen from the three-dimensional representation shown above.

The Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fatty acid elaidic acid has different Thrombophlebitis Geschichte and physical properties, owing to the slightly different bond configuration.

In food production, the goal is not to simply change the configuration of double Thrombophlebitis Geschichte while maintaining the same ratios of hydrogen to carbon. Instead, the goal is to decrease the number of double bonds and increase the amount of hydrogen in the fatty acid. This changes the consistency of the fatty acid and makes it less Thrombophlebitis Geschichte to rancidity in which free radicals attack double bonds.

Production of trans fatty acids is therefore an undesirable side effect of partial hydrogenation. Catalytic partial hydrogenation necessarily produces trans -fats, because of the reaction mechanism.

In the first reaction step, one hydrogen is added, with the other, coordinatively unsaturated, Thrombophlebitis Geschichte being attached to the catalyst. The second step is the addition of hydrogen to the remaining carbon, producing a saturated fatty acid.

The first step is reversible, such that the hydrogen is readsorbed on the catalyst and the double bond is re-formed. The intermediate with only one hydrogen added contains Thrombophlebitis Geschichte double bond and can freely rotate.

Thus, the double bond can re-form as either cis or transof Thrombophlebitis Geschichte trans is favored, regardless the starting material.

Complete hydrogenation also hydrogenates any produced trans fats to give saturated fats. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture have Thrombophlebitis Geschichte whether hydrogenation can be achieved without the side effect of trans fat production. Based on current U. Trans fat click the following article may be measured.

Measurement techniques include chromatography by silver ion chromatography on thin layer chromatography plates, or small high-performance liquid chromatography columns of silica gel with bonded phenylsulfonic acid groups whose hydrogen atoms Thrombophlebitis Geschichte been exchanged for silver ions. The role of silver lies in its ability to form complexes with unsaturated compounds.

Gas chromatography and mid- infrared spectroscopy are other methods in use. CLA has two double bonds, one in the cis configuration and one in trans Thrombophlebitis Geschichte, which makes it simultaneously a cis - and a trans -fatty acid.

Animal-based fats were once the only trans fats consumed, but by far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created by learn more here processed food industry as a side effect of partially hydrogenating unsaturated plant fats generally vegetable oils. These partially hydrogenated fats have displaced natural solid fats and liquid oils in many areas, the most notable ones being in Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fast food, snack foodfried Thrombophlebitis Geschichte, and baked goods industries.

Partially hydrogenated oils have been used in food for many reasons. Hydrogenation increases product shelf life and decreases refrigeration requirements. Many Thrombophlebitis Geschichte foods require semi-solid fats to suspend solids at room temperature; partially hydrogenated oils have the right consistency to replace animal fats such as butter and lard at Thrombophlebitis Geschichte cost.

They are also an inexpensive alternative to other semi-solid oils such as palm oil. It has been please click for source that trans fats in human milk Thrombophlebitis Geschichte with maternal consumption of trans fat, and that the amount of trans fats in the bloodstream of breastfed infants fluctuates with the amounts found in their milk.

Trans fats are used in shortenings for deep-frying in restaurants, as they can be used for longer than most conventional Thrombophlebitis Geschichte before becoming rancid. In the early Thrombophlebitis Geschichte century, non-hydrogenated vegetable oils that have lifespans exceeding that of the frying shortenings became available. Their recommendations are based on two key facts. First, "trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health", [6] whether of animal or plant origin.

The NAS is concerned "that dietary trans fatty acids are more deleterious with respect to coronary artery disease than saturated fatty acids". Because of these facts and concerns, the NAS has concluded there is no safe level Thrombophlebitis Geschichte trans fat consumption. There is no adequate level, recommended daily amount or tolerable upper limit for trans fats. This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary artery disease.

Despite this concern, the NAS dietary recommendations have not recommended the elimination of trans fat from the diet.

This is because Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fat is naturally Thrombophlebitis Geschichte in many animal foods in trace quantities, and therefore its removal from ordinary diets might introduce undesirable side effects and nutritional imbalances if proper nutritional planning is not undertaken. The NAS has, therefore, "recommended that trans fatty acid consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet".

The US National Dairy Council has asserted that the trans fats present in animal foods are of Thrombophlebitis Geschichte different type than those in partially hydrogenated oils, and do not appear to exhibit the same negative effects. More recent inquiry independent of the dairy industry has found in a Dutch meta-analysis that all trans fats, regardless of natural or artificial origin equally raise LDL and lower HDL levels.

Although CLA is known for its anticancer properties, researchers have also found that the cis-9, trans form of CLA can reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease and Thrombophlebitis Geschichte fight inflammation.

Partially hydrogenated Thrombophlebitis Geschichte oils have been an increasingly significant part of the human diet for about years in particular, since the later half of the 20th century and where more processed foods are consumed[62] and some deleterious source of trans fat consumption are scientifically accepted, forming the basis of the health guidelines discussed above.

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